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Additive Fertigungsverfahren

Team:

Frieder Heieck(Group leader),Joachim Greiner,Tristan Schlotthauer

Additive Manufacturing (AM) Technologies allow for the direct production of three-dimensional objects on the basis of a digital model without the need for additional tools. Most AM techniques work by slicing an object into thin layers with discrete thickness, which are then individually produced and thermally or chemically joined during the process. This enables the production of extremely complex geometries, which cannot be manufactured with conventional technologies (e.g. a „sphere inside a sphere“). Although the basic „slicing“-principle is similar for all techniques, they significantly differ regarding the used materials and processes. The main processes used are Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF, extrusion of thermoplastic filaments), Selective Laser-Sintering (SLS, sintering of plastic powder with a laser), Selective Laser-Melting (SLM, melting of metal powder with a laser) and Stereolithography (SL, curing of photosensitive resin systems with a light source).

 

Figure 1 –Additive Manufacturing Technologies use the principle of slicing a 3D object into thin layers, which are then produced with different materials and processes.

The Institute of Aircraft Design houses Stereolithography (UV resins), Selective Laser-Sintering (PA12) and Filament Fabrication (PLA, ABS, …) machines, which are used for student seminars, research activities and industry cooperation. The goal is to develop and apply additive manufacturing for the realisation of lightweight applications with integrated functionality and minimised use of resources.

 

Figure 2 – Available AM technologies (from left to right:: Stereolithography (SL), Selective Laser-Sintering (SLS), Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF)

Research topics focus on the optimization of material properties, the combination of additive manufacturing with conventional production techniques (e.g. injection moulding) and composite technology, as well as the topological optimization of structures considering the anisotropic properties of AM materials. The connection of AM production with composite technology opens up new possibilities to increase material properties for structural applications for the aerospace, automotive and other industries.
Interested students can gain experience with AM technology as a part of the lecture „Materials and Production Technologies“ or via the practice-oriented seminar „Additive Manufacturing“. During the latter, students are guided through the basics of AM technology before designing and testing a real lightweight component produced with AM in groups (requirement for exam participation).

 

Figure 3 – Production of tensile test specimen with Stereolithography (SL)